Freaks of Nature

Sassafras leaves
An unusual five-lobed Sassafras leaf

© Steven Foster

In 2009 Holiday Island resident and Eureka Springs Independent reader, Leah Nelson, noticed an extraordinary leaf on a sidewalk in Rogers, Arkansas—a giant sycamore leaf that was 16 ½ inches wide, and 13 ½ in. long, more than twice the normal size. This fall at Black Bass Lake I found a small group of Sassafras trees with leaves that were far from normal. Usually Sassafras has three types of leaves— simple oval leaves, mitten-shaped leaves (with one prominent lobe), and three-lobed leaves. Sassafras leaves are “always” longer than wide. On these trees, a large percentage of leaves were 5-7-lobed, and up to three times as wide as long.  Back in the early 80s I wrote about an Ozark Witch Hazel (Hamamelis vernalis) plant that I found that was brilliant scarlet red. It’s usually yellow to orange-tinged. A plant breeder in up-state New York saw my article and traveled to the Ozarks just to see the plant. He collected it, propagated it and offered it to his customers. These are examples of what horticultural breeders refer to as “sports”—variations from a plant’s “normal” morphological features. It’s all part of the package that nature delivers as endless variation.

It is this endless variation that horticulturists exploit to bring unusual or new plants to gardens. The famous plant breeder, Luther Burbank (1849-1926), gave us the giant Idaho potato (the Russett-Burbank potato). Before that one could hold a handful of potatos. Inspired by Charles Darwin’s 1868 book The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication, Burbank  planted dozens of acres of daisies, then walked up and down the rows, selecting a handful of “sports” from which to collect seed for propagation. The rest of the field was plowed under. From those selections the Shasta daisy was born. These types of variations usually are not described in field guides. They are freaks of nature, genetic twists of fate, or perhaps some inexplicable response to the environment. Who knows! We just hope that when we find such mutations that they are not induced by man-made chemicals unleashed to the air, soil, and water or from genetically modified organisms.  Let Nature work her own wonders.

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Steven Foster

Describing her first visit with Steven Foster in 1977, Harvard University botanist, Dr. Shiu Ying Hu (1908-2012), wrote, “Our conversation reminded me of something that Confucius said two thousand years ago. ‘In any company of three persons, there must be one who can be my teacher’. . . I found in Steven Foster a teacher who could share a profound knowledge of economic botany, particularly in the cultivation and uses of herbs.” In 1974, at age 17, Steven Foster, began his career at the Sabbathday Lake, Maine, Shaker Community Herb Department —America's oldest herb business, dating to 1799. There he established three acres of production gardens and managed 1700 acres for the commercial harvest of botanicals. For forty-six years, Steven has photographed and researched herbs from the Amazon rainforest to the highlands of Vietnam. Foster has over 900 photo-illustrated articles published in a wide range of media. Steven also served as Chairman of the Board of Trustees of the American Botanical Council, and a Contributing Editor to the organization's journal, HerbalGram. Steven is the author, co-author and photographer of eighteen books, including the NEW 2014 Third Edition of A Peterson Field Guide to Medicinal Plants: Eastern and Central North America (with James A. Duke), along with National Geographic’s Complete Guide to Medicinal Herbs (2010), and A Desk Reference to Nature’s Medicine (2006, with Rebecca Johnson), awarded a 2007 New York Public Library “Best of Reference.” He is senior author of three other Peterson Field Guides, including A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants and Herbs (with Dr. James A. Duke), 1st & 2nd editions, 1990, 2000; A Field Guide to Western Medicinal Plants and Herbs with Dr. Christopher Hobbs, (2002); and A Field Guide to Venomous Animals and Poisonous Plants of North America (with Roger Caras, 1995). Other titles include Herbal Emissaries: Bringing Chinese Herbs to the West (with Prof. Yue Chongxi, 1992); Herbal Renaissance (1994); among others. Foster makes his home in Eureka Springs, Arkansas.

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